PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOSIS RISK AND NEUROCOGNITIVE DEFICITS

Psychotic disorders usually become evident during adolescence and early adulthood and are
commonly preceded by psychosis risk states. Young people at risk for developing psychosis may
already have cognitive deficits.
This research examined factors associated with psychosis risk and adverse cognitive
performance, particularly in those at risk for developing psychosis. We aimed to characterise
genetic risk factors for psychosis risk and adverse cognitive performance. Additionally, early and
later biological risk markers for adverse cognitive performance and psychosis risk were explored.
Two longitudinal birth cohorts, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986, n=6,985
at 16 years) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, n=5,217 at 17
years), two NFBC 1986 sub-studies, the Oulu Brain and Mind 1 (n=182 for these analyses) and
Oulu Brain and Mind 2 (n=471 for these analyses) studies, and two Irish case control studies, the
Adolescent Brain Development (n=212) and Challenging Times (n=211) studies, were utilised.
Predictors of interest were selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs at COMT, BDNF
and DRD2), prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adolescent metabolic
measures.
Though not directly associated with psychotic experiences, the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val
genotype interacted with experience of childhood trauma to predict more psychotic experiences.
Two DRD2 SNPs were associated with poorer cognitive performance, though only in those with
risk for psychotic disorders. PEMCS was associated with adult vocabulary and matrix reasoning
performance in males, though not in males with adolescent psychotic experiences. Adolescent
academic performance, but not psychotic experiences, were associated with metabolic measures,
especially with ratios of omega-3 to total fatty acids.
These findings impact on prevention strategies for long-term adverse outcomes. Some risk
factors differ for those with psychotic experiences compared to the general population, while
others do not. SNPs at COMT and DRD2 may be more relevant in those with psychotic
experiences. Interventions targeting these groups may be particularly beneficial. Smoking in
pregnancy, however, is harmful to male cognitive performance across the population, suggesting
elimination of this risk is more broadly relevant. Fatty acid-related metabolic measures may mark
risk for cognitive deficits or may represent a developmental feature that is potentially open to
intervention.


ISBN-10:
9789526216911
Julkaisusarja:
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS OULUENSIS D Medica
Kustantaja:
Oulun yliopisto
Painovuosi:
2017
Sivumäärä:
212
Tekijät:
RAMSAY HUGH
Viivakoodi 9789526216911
Tuotekoodi 024609
Tekijä RAMSAY HUGH
25,00 €