CO2-BALANCE IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND CO2-UTILISATION

In this doctoral thesis knowledge and methods from engineering sciences were applied to definingatmospheric CO2 balance and the role of anthropogenic utilisation in industrial processes andglobal CO2-flows. In addition, barriers to the commercialisation of new CO2-utilisationapplications were discussed. These subjects were studied through literature reviews andcalculations.\nBy using mass balance calculation global CO2-flows were analysed and with this as a basis,the Earth's carrying capacity was defined numerically. Direct and indirect actions which couldmitigate the overload situation were derived from the results. To define the attractive CO2properties in utilisation applications, a mapping analysis was carried out. Properties whichenhance mass and heat transfer are the most meaningful characteristics from a chemicalengineering point of view. Most often, attractive properties are achieved at the supercritical state. \nEngineering thermodynamic methods were used in fluid phase determination of the casestudies. Even simple methods are sufficient to help us understand the phase behaviour of mixturesin experimental research. Thermodynamic knowledge is fundamental in the development anddesign of industrial scale chemical processes. If attractive properties of CO2 are to be utilised onan industrial scale, an understanding of the theory of high pressure operation is required. Also,defining the physical properties for all components and mixtures in a system plays a central role.In addition to engineering knowledge, successful technology transfer requires a positive socialstructure as well. \nFinally, if an even braver development vision is aimed for, i.e. to use the light of the Sun as anenergy source in processes as Nature does, the development of thermodynamic methods isrequired also in this area. Work is a central thermodynamic concept. Work transfer energy fromthe surroundings in the system. It was originally defined in classical mechanics: the displacementof an object from one point to another. In chemical engineering, the equation for work has beenformulised in pressure-temperature-volume systems. If the elements of work could be defined forphotoenergy, this would open a whole new way of looking at reaction chemistry. If thisdevelopment work is successful, we may see a shift from a thermodynamics approach to'photodynamics'. \nSeveral courses of action are required for the mitigation of global warming. On the road to acarbon neutral society, engineers can make their contribution by applying methods and theoriesknown in engineering sciences and where necessary, develop theories into new areas ofapplication.

ISBN-10:
978-951-42-9486-0
Kieli:
eng.
Sivumäärä:
164 s.
Tekijät:
TURUNEN HELKA
Tuotekoodi 014079
20,00 €